Bramhoek Dam

Type: Roller Compacted Concrete Dam (RCC)
Construction Date: April 2008 - August 2011
Location: Ladysmith KwaZulu Natal, South Africa
S 28.311635° E 29.579374°
Bramhoek Dam, situated below the mountains near Ladysmith, Kwa-Zulu Natal, is 39m high Roller Compacted Concrete Dam (RCC), with a 335m crest Length. The dam structure forms the lower reservoir of the Ingula Pumped Storage Scheme. Structure includes a free crest spillway with a crest length of 40m over RCC.

Bramhoek dam was constructed by Bedford/Bramhoek Dams Joint Venture (BDJV) and has a capacity of 26.7 million m³ and an active storage volume of 19.1 million m³.

Bramhoek Dam Instrumentation consists of the following:
  • Vibrating Wire Strain Gauges in and around the Outlet-Tunnel measuring RCC strain.
  • Vibrating Wire Long Base Strain/Jointmeters measuring over induced joints.
  • Vibrating Wire Thermometers measuring temperature.
  • Thermistors measuring temperature.
  • Vibrating Wire Foundation Piezometers for measuring pore pressure.
  • Eight sets of Vibrating Wire 3-D Crackmeters measuring three-dimensional movement on the crest.
  • Eight Vibrating Wire Tilt-meters measuring tilt.
  • Vibrating Wire Transducer measuring seepage

Instruments installed in and around the Dam Embankment are intended to monitor:
  • Tilt of the Dam;
  • Measuring movement over the induced joints;
  • Stresses and strain of the concrete;
  • Total downstream seepage;
  • Pore pressure build-up in foundation;
  • Lake level water height.

Installed Instruments Specification:
Seepage (Dam)
Geokon Vibrating Wire Transducers Vented Model 4580
Piezometers (Foundation, crump weir, lake level)
Geokon Vibrating Wire Model 4500S
Geokon Vibrating Wire Model 4500AL (V)
Joint Meter (Main Embankment)
Geokon Vibrating Wire Model 4400
Strain Gages (Main Embankment)
Geokon Vibrating Wire Model 4210/4200/4202
Tilt Meter (Crest)
Geokon Vibrating Wire Model 6350
3D Crack (Crest)
ITMsoil J3 - Vibrating Wire Tri-axial Joint meter
Temperature Gauge (Main Embankment)
Geokon Vibrating Wire Temperature Sensor Model 4700
Data Acquisition System CR800/1000 (Valve House)
Geokon Micro-1000 Data logger Model 8021
Geokon Multiplexer (MUX) Model 8032

Designers: Steward Scott Incorporated (SSI), Arcus Gibb and Knight Piésold

Consulting Engineers: Braamhoek Consultants Joint Venture (BCJV) comprises three of the country's mayor consulting firms bramhoek_damly SSI, Arcus Gibb and Knight Piésold

Contractors: Concor Roads & Earthworks, Wilson Bayly Holmes-Ovcon (WBHO), Edwin Construction and Silver Rock (BDJV)

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